By then, who knows what the freight railways have done towards electrification.

As it stands right now, you could probably put a Tesla battery pack on each coach and have enough range to cover Toronto-Ottawa-Montreal.

That is a pretty bold statement with no proof. Lets see if the math works out.

Using

VIA Rail's emissions data, the Toronto-Montreal train emits 14.76 kg CO2 /seat based on an emission factor of 3.01 Kg of CO2 equivalent per Liter of diesel, so works out to 4.91 liters of diesel / seat. Based on the assumption that a typical train on that route is a 5 car LRC, there are typically 272.00 seats per train, the train uses 1,335 liters of diesel.

According to Wikipedia, diesel fuel has an energy density of 38.60 MJ / liter of diesel, so the fuel Energy used (MJ) is 51,533 MJ. Since there is 3.60 MJ / kWh, that works out to 14,315 kWh. Now I don't know how efficient VIA's locomotives are, but assuming that they are an extremely poor 30% (they are probably much better), that means the electrical energy used is 4,294 kWh. It is also true that by using batteries, additional efficiencies can be gained through regenerative braking and such. Assuming that works out to 15%, that means the total battery energy used would be 3,650 kWh for the train. Now you said each car would have a battery, so given that we are assuming a 5 car train, that means the each car would draw on average 730 kWh. Now in reality that is an average and you would also want some reserve in case of eventualities, so you would probably want each car to actually have double that, so you are looking at a

**1.5 MWh battery per car**. As far as I know, the largest batteries Tesla currently uses are 100 kWh, so no, putting "a Tesla battery pack on each coach" would not "have enough range to cover Toronto-Ottawa-Montreal."

On top of that, none of that takes into account that adding batteries to the coaches will increase their mass, and thus increase the amount of energy needed to haul them.. Even Tesla's new

4680 cell is expected to have a specific energy density of about 300 Wh/kg. That works out to over 3 tonnes per MWh.

I'm sure you could roof Mount it like CNG tanks on a bus. Possibly with solar panels for trickle charging.

Batteries are very heavy and putting them on the roof will raise the center of gravity significantly. This would change the car's design performance, especially around corners.

The reality is, with a traditional passenger train (with separate locomotive and coaches, not an

EMU), it makes far more sense to put the batteries in the locomotive, so that their mass (and thus weight) can increase the traction between the driving wheels and the rail (the traction is proportional to the weight) rather than increase the mass of the load with no increase in traction. Obviously, with an EMU, the motors are in the coaches, so that is no longer an issue.